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Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences
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Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone(LOICZ), Germany
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The People's Republic of China

?China

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http://www.freeworldmaps.net/asia/china/map.html

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http://www.freeworldmaps.net/asia/china/political.html

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), consists of Chinese mainland, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Macau Special Administrative Region and Taiwan Province. It is the world's most populous country, with a population of over 1.3?billion. Covering approximately 9.6?million square kilometres(3,700,000?sq?mi), it is the second-largest country in the world by land area after Russia and is either the third- or fourth-largest by total area, after Russia, Canada and, depending on the definition of total area, the United States. As of 2012, China has the world's second-largest economy in terms of nominal GDP, totalling approximately US$7.298?trillion according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

The territory of China lies between latitudes 18° and 54° N, and longitudes365bet线上网投 73° and 135° E. Its landscape is vast and diverse, with forest steppes and the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts occupying the arid north and northwest near Mongolia and Central Asia, and subtropical forests being prevalent in the wetter south near Southeast Asia. The terrain of western China is rugged and elevated, with the Himalaya, Karakoram, Pamir and Tian Shan mountain ranges separating China from South and Central Asia. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third- and sixth-longest in the world, have their sources in the Tibetan Plateau and continue to the densely populated eastern seaboard. According to the National Bureau of Statistics of China, China's coastline is 32,000 kilometres (9,000?mi) long, including mainland shore 18,000 km and islands shore 14,000km.

China's climate is mainly dominated by dry seasons and wet monsoons, which lead to a pronounced temperature differences between winter and summer. It hosts a variety of forest types. Cold coniferous forests predominate in the north of the country. Subtropical forests dominate central and southern China. Tropical and seasonal rainforests, though confined to Yunnan and Hainan Island, contain a quarter of all the plant and animal species found in China.

In recent decades, China has suffered from severe environmental deterioration and pollution. A major environmental issue in China is the continued expansion of its deserts, particularly the Gobi Desert, which is currently the world's fifth-largest desert. Water quality, erosion, and pollution control have become important issues in China's relations with other countries. Melting glaciers in the Himalayas could potentially lead to water shortages for hundreds of millions of people.

Environmental campaigners have warned of the danger that water pollution poses to Chinese society. According to the Chinese Ministry of Water Resources, roughly 300?million Chinese do not have access to safe drinking water, and 40% of China’s rivers have been polluted by industrial and agricultural waste as of late 2011. This crisis is compounded by the perennial problem of water shortages, with 400 out of 600 surveyed Chinese cities reportedly short of drinking water. Additionally, numerous major Chinese coastal cities, including Shanghai, are deemed to be highly vulnerable to large-scale flooding.

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Natural Conditions

Item

2010

Territory

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Area of Territory (10 000 sq.km)

960

Area of Sea (10 000 sq.km)

473

Average Depth of Sea (m)

961

Maximum Depth of Sea (m)

5377

Length of Coastline (km)

32000

Mainland Shore

18000

Island Shore

14000

Number of Islands

5400

Area of Islands (10 000 sq.km)

3.87

Climate

 

Distribution of Heat (Accumulated Temperature0)

 

Northern Heilongjiang and Tibet Plateau

2000-2500

Northeast Plain

3000-4000

North China Plain

4000-5000

Changjiang (Yangtze) River Drainage Area

5800-6000

and the Area to the south of it

 

Area to the South of Nanling Mountain

7000-8000

Precipitation (mm)

 

Mid-Taiwan Mountain Area

4000

Southern China Coastal Area

1600-2000

Changjiang River Valley

1000-1500

Northern and Northeastern Area

400-800

Northwestern Inland

100-200

Tarim Basin, Turpan Basin and Qaidam

Basin

25

Percentage of Climatic Zones to Total Area of Territory

 

Humid Zone (aridity<1.0)

32

Semi-Humid Zone (aridity 1.0-1.5)

15

Semi-Arid Zone (aridity 1.5-2.0)

22

Arid Zone (aridity>2.0)

31

 

a)? The climate data refer to the average figures in many years.

b)? Island area does not include that of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Macao Special Administrative Region and Taiwan Province.

(National Bureau of Statistics of China)

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Major Rivers

River

Drainage Area

Length

Annual Flow

(sq.km)

(km)

(100 million cu.m)

??Changjiang River (Yangtze River)????

1808500

6300

9513

? Huanghe River (Yellow River)????????

752443

5464

661

? Songhuajiang River??????????????????

557180

2308

762

? Liaohe River????????????????????????

228960

1390

148

? Zhujiang River (Pearl River)?????????

453690

2214

3338

? Haihe River?????????????????????????

263631

1090

228

? Huaihe River????????????????????????

269283

1000

622

(National Bureau of Statistics of China)

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Drainage Area of Rivers

River

Drainage

Percentage

Area

(sq.km)

to Total (%)

Total of Out-flowing Rivers and Inland Rivers????????????????????

9559370

100.00

Out-flowing Rivers??????????????????????????????????????

6114728

63.97

??? Heilongjiang River and Suifenhe River?????????????????

875342

9.16

??? Liaohe, Yalujiang and Related Coastal Rivers??????????

345207

3.61

??? Haihe River and Luanhe River??????????????????????????

318161

3.33

??? Huanghe River (Yellow River)??????????????????????????

752443

7.87

? ??Huaihe and Related Coastal Rivers in Shandong Province

329211

3.44

??? Changjiang River (Yangtze River)??????????????????????

1808500

18.92

??? Rivers in Zhejiang, Fujian and Taiwan Provinces???????

239803

2.51

??? Zhujiang River (Pearl River) and Related Coastal River??

580640

6.07

??? Yuanjiang River and Lancang River?????????????????????

240652

2.52

??? Nujiang River and West Yunnan Rivers??????????????????

157156

1.64

??? Brahmaputra and Southern Tibet Rivers????????

396258

4.15

??? Western Tibet Rivers??????????????????????????????????

57340

0.60

?? ?Ertix River???????????????????????????????????????????

50000

0.52

Inland Rivers???????????????????????????????????????????

3408659

35.66

??? Rivers in Inner Mongolia??????????????????????????????

300067

3.14

? ??Rivers in Huanghe Upper Reach Area????????????????????

488301

5.11

??? Rivers in Zhunger Basin???????????????????????????????

316530

3.31

??? Rivers in Central Asia????????????????????????????????

93130

0.97

??? Rivers in Tarim Basin?????????????????????????????????

1074810

11.24

??? Rivers in Qinghai Province????????????????????????????

316285

3.31

??? Rivers in Qiangtang???????????????????????????????????

721182

7.54

Blind Drainage Areas of Songhua River, Huanghe? River and Southern Tibet

90353

0.95

a)? Figures in the table are obtained from preliminary measurements and tabulated data by water conservancy departments, and are subject to further verification.

(National Bureau of Statistics of China)

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Sea Area, Areas of Fishing Ground and Water Quality

Sea

 

 

 

 

Evaluation of Seawater Quality in Offshore Area

Sea Area

Area of Fishing

Average

Maximum

 

 

 

 

(1 000

Ground of

Depth

Depth

Clean

Lightly

Moderately

Heavily

hectares)

Continental Shelf

(m)

(m)

Area

Polluted Area

Polluted Area

Polluted Area

 

(1 000 hectares)

 

 

(10 000 sq.km)

(10 000 sq.km)

(10 000 sq.km)

(10 000 sq.km)

Total

472700

280000

???????????????????

???????????????????

4.24

3.15

2.14

4.78

Bohai Sea

7700

7700

18

70

0.83

0.75

0.44

0.29

?Huanghai Sea

38000

35300

44

140

0.94

0.70

0.58

0.65

?Donghai Sea

77000

54900

370

2719

1.85

0.87

0.92

3.04

Nanhai Sea

350000

182100

1212

5559

0.63

0.83

0.21

0.79

(National Bureau of Statistics of China)


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Seashore Land Area for Cultivation

(1 000 hectares)

Region

Cultivatable

 

 

 

Marine Area

Shallow Sea

Sea-beach

Harbor

??? National Total?????

2600.11

1622.56

797.00

180.55

??????? Beijing????????????

0.44

????????????????

0.44

??????????????

??????? Tianjin????????????

18.49

10.00

8.49

??????????????

??????? Hebei??????????????

111.37

49.66

61.70

??????????????

??????? Liaoning???????????

725.84

590.44

92.45

42.95

??????? Shanghai???????????

3.22

????????????????

3.22

??????????????

??????? Jiangsu????????????

139.00

7.87

130.96

0.17

??????? Zhejiang???????????

101.46

36.30

57.39

7.77

??????? Fujian?????????????

184.94

77.39

100.76

6.79

??????? Shandong???????????

358.21

131.68

173.41

53.12

??????? Guangdong??????????

835.67

664.00

120.00

51.67

??????? Guangxi????????????

31.95

6.78

22.09

3.08

??????? Hainan?????????????

89.52

48.43

26.09

15.00

(National Bureau of Statistics of China)


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